- Sir Charles Spencer Chaplin, noto come Charlie Chaplin (Londra, 16 aprile 1889 – Corsier-sur-Vevey, 25 dicembre 1977), è stato un attore, regista, sceneggiatore, comico, compositore e produttore cinematografico britannico, autore di oltre novanta film e tra i più importanti e influenti cineasti del XX secolo.
Il personaggio attorno al quale costruì larga parte delle sue sceneggiature, e che gli diede fama universale, fu quello del “vagabondo” (The Tramp in inglese; Charlot in italiano, francese e spagnolo): un omino dalle raffinate maniere e la dignità di un gentiluomo, vestito di una stretta giacchetta, pantaloni e scarpe più grandi della sua misura, una bombetta e un bastone da passeggio in bambù; tipici del personaggio erano anche i baffetti e l’andatura ondeggiante. L’emotività sentimentale e il malinconico disincanto di fronte alla spietatezza e alle ingiustizie della società moderna, fecero di Charlot l’emblema dell’alienazione umana – in particolare delle classi sociali più emarginate – nell’era del progresso economico e industriale.
Chaplin fu una delle personalità più creative e influenti del cinema muto. La sua vita lavorativa nel campo dello spettacolo ha attraversato oltre 75 anni. Fu influenzato dal comico francese Max Linder, a cui dedicò uno dei suoi film. Star mondiale del cinema, fu oggetto di adulazione e di critiche serrate, anche a causa delle sue idee politiche. Nei primi anni cinquanta, durante le persecuzioni del cosiddetto Maccartismo, le sue idee di forte stampo progressista lo avversarono alla maggior parte della stampa; fu inviso anche al governo federale statunitense.
Mentre si trovava a Londra, gli fu negato il permesso di rientro negli USA: visse il resto della sua esistenza in Svizzera, “riabilitato” dall’opinione pubblica americana solo all’inizio degli anni settanta, quando tornò nella sua patria di adozione per ritirare l’Oscar alla carriera. Tra gli attori più famosi dalla nascita dell’industria hollywoodiana, L’American Film Institute lo ha inserito al decimo posto tra le più grandi star della storia del cinema.
Charles Chaplin era ateo.
- Sir Charles Spencer “Charlie” Chaplin, KBE (16 April 1889 – 25 December 1977) was an English comic actor, filmmaker, and composer who rose to fame in the silent era. Chaplin became a worldwide icon through his screen persona “the Tramp” and is considered one of the most important figures in the history of the film industry. His career spanned more than 75 years, from childhood in the Victorian era until a year before his death in 1977, and encompassed both adulation and controversy.
Chaplin’s childhood in London was one of poverty and hardship. As his father was absent and his mother struggled financially, he was sent to a workhouse twice before the age of nine. When he was 14, his mother was committed to a mental asylum. Chaplin began performing at an early age, touring music halls and later working as a stage actor and comedian. At 19 he was signed to the prestigious Fred Karno company, which took him to America. Chaplin was scouted for the film industry, and began appearing in 1914 for Keystone Studios. He soon developed the Tramp persona and formed a large fan base. Chaplin directed his own films from an early stage, and continued to hone his craft as he moved to the Essanay, Mutual, and First National corporations. By 1918, he was one of the best known figures in the world.
In 1919, Chaplin co-founded the distribution company United Artists, which gave him complete control over his films. His first feature-length was The Kid (1921), followed by A Woman of Paris (1923), The Gold Rush (1925), and The Circus (1928). He refused to move to sound films in the 1930s, instead producing City Lights (1931) and Modern Times (1936) without dialogue. Chaplin became increasingly political, and his next film, The Great Dictator (1940), satirised Adolf Hitler. The 1940s were a decade marked with controversy for Chaplin, and his popularity declined rapidly. He was accused of communist sympathies, while his involvement in a paternity suit and marriages to much younger women caused scandal. An FBI investigation was opened, and Chaplin was forced to leave the United States and settle in Switzerland. He abandoned the Tramp in his later films, which include Monsieur Verdoux (1947), Limelight (1952), A King in New York (1957), and A Countess from Hong Kong (1967).
Chaplin wrote, directed, produced, edited, starred in, and composed the music for most of his films. He was a perfectionist, and his financial independence enabled him to spend years on the development and production of a picture. His films are characterised by slapstick combined with pathos, typified in the Tramp’s struggles against adversity. Many contain social and political themes, as well as autobiographical elements. In 1972, as part of a renewed appreciation for his work, Chaplin received an Honorary Academy Award for “the incalculable effect he has had in making motion pictures the art form of this century”. He continues to be held in high regard, with The Gold Rush, City Lights, Modern Times, and The Great Dictator often ranked on industry lists of the greatest films of all time.